A student carried out tests to find out which molecules were present in a sample of urine from a human male. The student recorded the presence of large protein molecules in the urine, and suggested that this indicated that the kidney was not functioning correctly.
Which of the following could have resulted in a high concentration of protein in the urine sample?
1 damage to cell membranes between the blood vessels and the Bowman’s capsule
2 a reduced rate of active transport and selective re-absorption from the nephron
3 Cells in the collecting duct do not have receptors to bind to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and so are unable to respond to the hormone.
A. none of them
B. 1 only
C. 2 only
D. 3 only
E. 1 and 2 only
F. 1 and 3 only
G. 2 and 3 only
H. 1, 2 and 3